Method for Producing the Side Window Glazing of Trains, Airplanes and Ships image

Such glazing usually includes:

an external substrate having an outer face facing the outer space, an intermediate face on the side opposite to the outer face, and a peripheral edge face,

an inner substrate having an inner face facing the inner space, an intermediate face on the side opposite to the inner face, and a peripheral edge face,

And a glazing frame structure holds the outer substrate and the inner substrate together such that the glazing separates the outer space from the inner space, the glazing cavity is located between the outer substrate and the inner substrate.

If the glass window can be opened, the outer substrate and the inner substrate each comprise holes in the upper part, the holes leading to the respective faces of the substrate and separated from the peripheral edge face of the substrate, the holes in the substrate facing each other to allow the creation of an opening window, and the glazing frame structure furthermore holds the two substrates around the hole.

To qualify glazing as safety glazing, the glazing also comprises a laminate comprising on the one hand at least one primary glass sheet and on the other hand a primary plastic sheet that is in contact with the ground (no space ) positioned between the intermediate plane of the outer substrate on the one hand and the main glass sheet on the other hand.

French patent application N° FR 2 712 840 discloses the manufacture of a safety double-glazed window in which the outer substrate is laminated. Figures 1 and 2 of this document show a glazing frame structure holding together the outer substrate and the inner substrate to form the glazing cavity, the glazing frame structure comprising on the one hand spacers (designated 8 and 18 in these figures), and on the other hand include binder substances (designated 9 and 19 in these figures).

Also, the prior art from European patent application N° EP 2 363 284 (in particular the variant in Fig. 2) is known as a side glazing structure for a vehicle, this glazing being fixed multiple safety and emergency Exit glazing, it has no opening windows. This document discloses a solution that makes it easier to break the glass window, thus making evacuation easier.

In this document, a laminate of reinforced glazing substrates is proposed, the laminate not touching the peripheral glazing frame structure, since this laminate is retracted from this peripheral structure. This setback is all the same around the periphery of the substrate; the distance between the edge face of the stack and the edge face of the substrate carrying it is all the same along the periphery.

Fixed side glazing with opening windows for mass vehicles is also known from the prior art from the Chinese utility model N°CN 202788522.

The glazing has a pleasing appearance since its respective substrates have oblong holes to allow the creation of open windows.

The glazing provides satisfactory thermal isolation because there is a glazing cavity between the two substrates.

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The structure of the side window of the guest room:

  • The window glass is first coated and fixed on the auxiliary frame, and then the auxiliary frame and the installation frame are fastened by bolts. The whole window is coated, and fixed to the train's body or the ship‘s body by applying sealant sealing. Seal by sizing.
  • The window frames are manufactured from extruded aluminum profiles.
  • The window glass is made of double-layer insulating laminated glass, and the insulating glass part is filled with inert argon-gas.

Technical parameters of passenger compartment side windows:

Thermal insulation coefficient
<1.4 W/㎡ K
~21%(The emergency exit window>27%)
Energy transmittance
~17%(The emergency exit window<20%)
Weighted insulation
> 40 dB
Insulating glass thickness

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How to use automatic equipment to produce the side window insulating glass

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Automatic Glass Cutting Machine

Automatic Glass Cutting Machine
Product Description

LIJIANG Glass automatic glass cutting line consists of three parts: loading table, cutting table and breaking table. It is mainly used in the cutting and breaking of flat glass, which can help enterprises realize fully automatic and intelligent operation methods, greatly improve production efficiency and save labor costs. Realize glass automatic loading/automatic transmission/automatic positioning/automatic optimization/automatic cutting and breaking functions. Higher, faster, precise.

The operation is simpler, the optimization rate is higher, the stability is better, and the manpower is saved.

The advanced mechanical structure is equipped with imported control system and cutting optimization software, which greatly improves the glass cutting quality and cutting rate.

Feature & Advantages

  1. The motor gear and the rack are seamlessly connected to form a whole, and the cutting precision is high;
  2. Fast cutting speed, stable operation and low noise;
  3. The operation interface is simple and easy to understand, with stable performance and complete functions;
  4. It can cut plate glass, embossed glass, jade sand glass and other handicraft glass;
  5. Significantly save manpower and provide guarantee for the long-term operation of the enterprise.
Device modelMaximum processing sizeGlass thicknessFlip topLoading stationThe cycle timeCutting speedCutting accuracyNumber of breaking rodsInput voltageDimensions
LJQG-2722 cutting line
Single station/Double station/Multiple station
LJQG-4228 cutting line
Single station/Double station/Multiple station
LJQG-5033 cutting line
Duplex / Multi-station
LJQG-6133 cutting line
Duplex / Multi-station
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Automaitc Glass Edge Grinding Machine

Automaitc Glass Edge Grinding Machine
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Automatic Vertical Glass Washing and Drying Machine

Automatic Vertical Glass Washing and Drying Machine
LJLQ-2500 glass washing and drying machine could wash max glass of 2500 mm*3500 mm, more large size and less size can be optional.
  • Self-Diagnosis system with touch screen on computer.
  • Stainless steel washer with 8 ( 6 ) brushes, soft brushes from MONFORTS of Germany, hard brushes automatically open when Low-E glass input.
  • Rotate speed of brush frequency control. (optional)
  • Stainless steel air knife is automatically adjustable according to glass thickness, Max thickness to 19 mm.
  • High speed cleaning ( max 14 m/min), Low noise ( max 70 dB), high availability working. (25 second /unit)
  • Automatic detection of Low-E glass and alarm for coating in reverse. (optional)
  • Structure stepped and three-layer I.G. unit available. (optional)
  • Precision of plate press: ±0.3 mm
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Structural Characteristics
  • The glass washing machine could clean ordinary flat glass or coated glass with a thickness of 3~12mm; 
  • The cleaning area uses 3 pairs of brushes or optional 4 pairs of brushes (or imported soft brushes, coating or LOE special), two or four water cleaning; 
  • The machine adopts an inclined vertical structure, the flat glass is placed on the conveyor roller, passes through the feeding section, cleaning and drying section, and reaching the discharging section to complete the glass cleaning task; 
  • The cleaning area and the water tank are made of stainless steel and corrosion-resistant materials; the inclined wind knife with strong wind can dry the glass surface; 
  • The discharge section is equipped with inspection lamps to check the cleaning quality of the glass. The machine is easy to operate, and the operation buttons are concentrated on the operating table.
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  1. Max glass size: 2000 mm*2500 mm
  2. Min glass size: 2500 mm*3000 mm
  3. Working direction facing the equipment
  4. Washing speed: 2-10 m/min
  5. Glass thickness: 3-15 mm
  6. Insulating glass thickness: ≤40 mm
  7. Water supply: 0.5 tons/day of circulating water, conductivity ≤40μS
  8. Washing speed: 2-10 m/min
  9. Working height: 580 mm
  10. Power: 3P 380V 50Hz
  11. Ambient temperature: 10°C-30°C, according to DIN 40040
  12. Relative air humidity: ≤ 75 %, according to DIN 40040
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Benefits & Advantages

  • Configuration of three pairs of brushes
Six high temperature resistant wire brushes with diameter of 180 mm + four sprays, the glass is cleaned and the speed is fast (10-12 m per minute). The first brush is equipped with two bristles and is lifted by a cylinder.

  • Water rust and corrosion resistant
The parts and screws in the cleaning box that are in contact with water are made of stainless steel, copper, waterproof aluminum, nylon and other materials. They will not rust after long-term use and are easy to maintain.

  • High efficiency air knives
Two pairs of stainless steel air knives are equipped with high wind power and good drying effect, with heating system. The unique circulating windshield drying system is energy-saving and low-noise (the wind temperature can reach 40 degrees without heating in winter).

  • Stainless steel structure
The air-drying box glass support frame is uniformly welded by high-strength stainless steel, and the whole washing parts of glass washing and drying equipment will be used for a long time without rust and will not cause secondary glass pollution.

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Automatic Vertical Glass Film Sorting System

Automatic Vertical Glass Film Sorting System
LIJIANG Glass intelligent film sorting and storage system includes horizontal and vertical turning tables, vertical measuring tables, glass shuttle machines, film sorting and storage machines, and vertical and horizontal turning tables arranged along the glass conveying direction. Through the coordination and cooperation of various components, a series of processes such as horizontal and vertical conversion of glass, specification measurement, classified storage, and on-demand access are completed. The glass size in the process of processing is inspected by the vertical inspection table, and the glass is stored in the corresponding grid frame according to the system requirements. The system takes out the glass in sequence according to the process requirements for subsequent processing.

  1. The manual handling and classification storage links are reduced in the whole system, which greatly improves the efficiency and yield;
  2. Quick inspection, accurate positioning, intelligent classification storage and intelligent outbound;
  3. Optimize space utilization and reduce the space occupied by semi-finished products;
  4. Wide applicability, it can be used to store and classify before edging to improve the efficiency of edging; it can also be used to store and classify before tempering to meet the loading rate and process requirements of tempering furnaces, and it can also be used before hollowing to solve the automatic matching of insulating glass Production requirements.
Operating Mode

  • Pairing Mode
Online use, after multiple glasses with different matching requirements are sent to the racking system, the sheets are automatically paired according to the order required by the work order;

  • Sequential Mode
For offline use, after sending different glasses that need to be paired in a single rack into the racking system, the sheets are output according to the order of the work order;

  • Efficiency Mode
It is used offline before edging or color reeling, and the pieces are produced in order of small batches and sizes, and the number of edging openings and closings is reduced, and the edging efficiency is increased by about 1 to 3 times.

Maximum glass size
Minimum glass size
Glass thickness
Transfer speed
Number of layers in storage
AGV trolley speed
Matching beat
Average rack change time ≤45S/time
Number of mobile grid lanes
Grid moving speed
table height
table height
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Automatic Insulating Glass Production Line

Automatic Insulating Glass Production Line
  • Germany Siemens PLC control system, touch screen interface for finger touch operate
  • Automatic identification of coated glass and Low-E glass; 
  • 3 pair of soft brushes could wash online Low-E glass and offline Low-E glass; 
  • The washing parts adopt SS material and waterproof device; 
  • Water tank with automatic temperature control and water washing system.
  • Air heating system;
  • Air Fan automatic start and stop setting;
  • Noise reduction system;
  • Online display of washing speed;
  • Intelligent intermittent work, saving energy;
  • Adjustable pressing board to keep the plate pressing surface straight;
  • Connection mode of aviation plug;
  • Applicable to produce triple IGUs and Shaped IGUs.
  • Pre-washing Function;
  • Automatically accurate positioning for 3 or 4 side step DGUs;
  • Automatic Argon-gas filling could set gas value and display the process of filling online with high gas concentration.
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Four-layer Double-circulation Laminated Glass Furnace

Four-layer Double-circulation Laminated Glass Furnace
  • Two sets of shields in zone A and zone B are independently controlled, and can produce glass with different parameters at the same time, work in a cycle, reduce costs, and increase efficiency;
  • Multi-layer independent heating, modularized area heating control, fast heating speed, high efficiency, and small temperature difference;
  • Adopt a PLC control system, a brand-new user-friendly UI interface, the whole process of equipment status can be visualized, and all procedures can be completed automatically;
  • With a new upgraded design, the lifting platform has a one-button lifting function, and the fully loaded glass lifts without deformation and rebound.
More Customers Service of Laminated Glass Furnace 1More Customers Service of Laminated Glass Furnace 1
Three-phase AC rated power (Kw)
Processing glass size (mm)
Glass stacking thickness
40 molding cycle (min/furnace)
Processing area (㎡)
Working temperature (℃)
Overall weight (KG)

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Automatic Laminated Glass Autoclave

Automatic Laminated Glass Autoclave

Automatic Laminated Glass Autoclave 1
Figure 1 Automatic Laminated Glass Autoclave 1
1. Combination operation process

When laminating glass, firstly choose a PVB film with a suitable glass width, and keep the film clean, avoid touching the corner film and glass directly with your hands, flatten the PVB film naturally, do not stretch it manually, and align it with the glass. There should be no sense of unevenness between the inner and outer films, and it is necessary to check whether the reserved marks overlap.

Then cut off the excess film. When cutting, keep the blade tilted, and leave 0.5mm-2mm film at the edge of the joint, which is to avoid shrinkage caused by film shrinkage.

After the film and glass are combined, put on a vacuum rubber ring and check the sealing strip. The tension around the glass should be uniform, and then cold draw the glass to remove the air in the middle of the joint, and the cooling time should not be short. in 5 minutes.

2. Glass preheating and pre-pressing process

After the glass is clamped with PVB film and the air is evacuated, the combined glass is preheated and pre-pressed.

There are three types of equipment for preheating and pressing operations. One is the preheating and pre-pressing box, which is favored by many manufacturers because of its simple equipment, small investment, and low energy consumption. However, there are also disadvantages to the preheating and pre-pressing box. The processing efficiency is low, and it cannot be adapted to industrial production; the transmission type vertical and horizontal preheating and pressing machines have high production efficiency and are suitable for glass deep processing factories. large-scale production.

The difference between transmission-type vertical and horizontal preheating and pre-pressing machines is that when the glass is placed to complete the preheating and pre-pressing process, the glass is placed vertically and the other is flat. When the vertical preheating and pressing machine is used to evacuate the glass, it has little effect on the arc of the glass; while the horizontal preheating and pressing machine are used to evacuate the glass because the glass is in a flat state, it will not be affected by its gravity and the pumping. Under the influence of vacuum pressure, it will affect the curvature of the glass. Therefore, horizontal preheating and pressing machines are used in the production of large-size glass.

3. Operation process of glass in the autoclave

The manufacturing process in the autoclave is the last in the production of laminated glass. The preheated and repressed glass must be treated at constant temperature and high pressure to make the PVB film and the glass laminate better bonded together.

The constant temperature and high-pressure treatment should be operated in an autoclave. Firstly, the semi-finished laminated glass bonded together should be isolated from each other, placed on a special stand for the autoclave, and made firm, and then the door of the autoclave should be closed tightly. Pressurize and inflate the kettle, and stop inflating the kettle when the pressure in the kettle reaches about 0.75MPa. Stop the inflation because the edges of the laminated glass are not bonded firmly, to make the space in the middle of the glass interlayer overflow under the action of pressure, so that the air will not enter the interlayer from the edge. When the temperature in the kettle reaches about 130°C, stop heating immediately and keep this temperature.

At this time, the laminated glass has been able to be bonded, and the second pressurization is carried out in the kettle. Since the glass has reached the bonding temperature, the pressurization will not cause air to enter the interlayer. When the pressure reaches 1.2MPa, stop the pressurization and Keep the pressure stable, and after 1h~1.5h, reduce the temperature in the kettle to 50°C, start to exhaust, and reduce the pressure in the kettle until the air is completely removed, then open the kettle door and push out the glass.

In addition, the processing process of laminated glass still has some finishing work, that is, inspecting the glass piece by piece, trimming the qualified products, cutting off the excess film around; Pressing, and heating.

Automatic Laminated Glass Production Line 2Figure 2 Automatic Laminated Glass Autoclave 2

Production line type
Laminated glass production line with autoclave
Maximum processing size
Minimum processing size
Drilling diameter
Glass turning diameter
Processing thickness range
Automatic Laminated Glass Autoclave 3
Automatic Laminated Glass Autoclave 4
Automatic Laminated Glass Autoclave 5
Automatic Laminated Glass Autoclave 6
Automatic Laminated Glass Autoclave 7
Automatic Laminated Glass Autoclave 8
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At present, high-speed vehicles, such as high-speed rails, airplanes, and ships, have been widely used in traffic. Among them, side windows are widely used as the main lighting and sightseeing parts. For the high-speed operation of high-speed rails, airplanes, ships, etc. There are many technical requirements for the performance of side window glass, including impact resistance, deformation resistance, sound insulation, heat insulation and fire protection, heat preservation, sun protection, etc. Therefore, high-speed rail side window glass is designed in a variety of ways. Side window glass manufacturers generally use multi-layer tempered glass with a hollow structure, which has the advantages of good mechanical properties and can reduce the total amount of production and processing. Through the structural design of the glass itself, it can meet the performance requirements of modern high-speed vehicles.

Before the side window glass is processed, it is processed with float glass called "original glass". First, the large piece of float glass is cut into small pieces of the side window glass size of high-speed rail, aircraft, and ships. The glass is then placed on an automatic cutting machine to start cutting. Glass cutting is the first process, which mainly cuts the original glass into the shape of the side window glass of vehicles such as high-speed rail, airplanes, and ships.

The glass edge grinding machine is mainly used for the pre-processing of side window glass and is mainly responsible for cutting side window glass. For washing and grinding processes, the entire production line does not require a lot of manual operations, and the degree of automation is very high. Production workers only need to start the production line and place the original glass, and the remaining processing steps are completed by automated equipment.

Two processing procedures such as cutting, grinding, and edging will cause glass dust to adhere to the glass surface, so the glass needs to be thoroughly cleaned and dried to clean away the glass dust and marks produced during the handling process, to keep the glass washed and dryed.

After cutting, edging, washing, and other processing procedures, the side window glass will be tempered. After the side window glass is tempered, the tempered glass can be broken, but the sharp edges and corners will not be scattered all over the place to hurt passengers, and passengers can break the side window glass to escape.

Because the side window glass of a vehicle is generally laminated insulating glass, it is made of two pieces of glass sandwiched by a layer of transparent bonding material (PVB film). After the glass is cut, edged, and washed, it enters the processing link of "piece matching". In composition, the inner glass near the inner lining of the high-speed vehicle is the outer glass), and the inner glass and the outer glass are laminated.

The finished glass is placed in a fixed processing position, and the workers are responsible for transporting it to the hot bending furnace for processing and forming. After being processed by the hot bending furnace, the original two pieces of flat glass are deformed by the hot bending furnace using high heat and high pressure to form the curvature of the side window glass used in automobiles.

The side window glass after hot bending will enter the lamination process. This process is mainly to add a layer of transparent adhesive material (PVB film) between the inner and outer sheets. The pipe extracts the air in the interlayer of two pieces of glass, which is the initial bonding of the two pieces of glass.

After the two pieces of glass are bonded with the PVB film, they enter the next step, which is heating at a high temperature. The glass is placed in the autoclave of the laminated glass processing equipment, and the residual air in the two pieces of glass is drawn out by vacuum pressure, and the inner and outer pieces of glass are tightly bonded with the PVB film. At this time, the side window glass has anti-infrared, transparent High luminosity, and other advantages.
The glass of most aircraft cabins is not one layer, but a three-layer structure design, namely the outer layer, the middle layer, and the inner layer.

Among them, the inner layer of glass, that is, the part that contacts passengers, is mainly for decoration, while the middle layer and outer layer of glass are structural parts. The so-called structural parts are simply the parts that bear the force. We all know that after the plane takes off, the altitude often reaches several thousand meters. At this altitude, the air is already very thin and the air pressure is also very small. If the passengers in the aircraft want to be comfortable, they must maintain the air pressure in the cabin at a value similar to the ground air pressure through pressurization. At this time, the air pressure difference between the inside and outside of the aircraft will be very large, and the aircraft is like a pressure cooker.

If the pot wall is the structural part of the pressure cooker, then the middle layer and the outer layer are the structural parts of the cabin window glass. The outermost layer is the main structural layer subjected to pressurized load, and the middle class is generally made of electroplated tempered insulating glass to ensure the cabin pressure in case the outer glass breaks unexpectedly. The cabin glass is a damage-safe structural design. The middle layer is equivalent to a spare stress-bearing part, and safety can still be guaranteed if any layer of the outer layer and the middle layer is damaged.
Single furnace output: 26㎡--96㎡
Equipment covers an area of about 20㎡--50㎡

The height of the equipment on the second floor is 1150mm, and the equipment on the third and fourth floors is equipped with an automatic lifting system.

The double circulation of the laminating equipment truly realizes the independent operation of the upper and lower sides, and each studio can operate independently, which truly realizes double independence

Tempered laminated single furnace production, 1.5 hours out of the furnace cycle, the daily output can reach 200㎡

Bending clip production can be formed at one time, and can also be pre-pressed with an autoclave, helping many glass deep-processing enterprises to solve the bending clip solution

The cost budget

Taking developing country India as an example, $1.5/㎡ for film + $0.5/㎡ for labor + $0.2/㎡ for electricity = $2.2/㎡

The equipment covers an area

The equipment prepares a 3.8m (width) * 9m (length) site, and reserves about 15㎡ of space for assembling and placing the films

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