With the development of glass production and deep processing technology, the application of glass in architecture has risen to a new level. The function of glass has also expanded from the early days: doors, windows, curtain walls, etc. with the main purpose of lighting and ventilation to interior and exterior wall decoration, roofs, floors, and other parts, and even become structural materials. Glass has also developed from a purely functional material that pursues light transmission and visibility to an omnipotent interior and exterior decoration material. Today, LIJIANG Glass uses a professional article to share what are the common "glass deep processing techniques" in construction, and share which automation equipment glass deep processing enterprises should choose for processing and production.
1. Coated Glass
Glass coating is a process of coating one or more layers of metal, non-metal, alloy, or metal compound films on the surface of glass; including heat-reflective glass and low-emissivity glass (Low-E Glass). Its function is good heat insulation and UV energy saving effect, enhanced glass hardness, and the reflectivity of the coated surface can generally reach 20~40%.
The size of conventional large slabs of coated glass is usually 2440mm*3660mm, 2440mm*3300mm, 2100mm*3300mm, and domestic coated glass is said to have a maximum size of 3300mm*16000mm.
Coated glass can also choose "color". The color of coated glass is not the inherent color of the glass, but the spectral reflection color of the coating layer. Therefore, it can theoretically reflect light of different wavelengths, including any color in visible light.
Colorful coated glass
Rainbow coated glass
Repulse Bay PULSA / Aedas
The insulating Low-E coated glass or insulated Low-E coated Glass is used as the facade, the convection windows are used, the roof swimming pool and the elevated platform are set up, and the all-round sunshade and heat insulation improve the energy-saving effect. The residence has won the green building environmental assessment
2. Laminated Glass
Laminated glass or laminated glass is a composite glass product that is permanently bonded by two or more pieces of glass through organic bonding materials.
Laminated glass was originally designed to keep the glass clean and smooth when it is damaged by external force so that the glass fragments will not scatter and cause safety hazards. There are various types of films in the middle of laminated glass, such as color films, etc.
It can meet different functional and decorative requirements. Common original glass sheets include float glass, tempered glass, colored glass, heat-absorbing glass or heat-reflecting glass, etc.; common interlayer films include PVB, SGP, EVA, PU, etc.
In addition, there are some special interlayer and interlayer materials, such as color interlayer, printing interlayer, and Low-E glass interlayer. Interlayer materials include paper, cloth, plants, silk, silk, and metal wire.
(wire laminated glass)
(Printed interlayer laminated glass)
Academy Film Museum, Los Angeles / Renzo Piano Architecture Studio
The building's glass dome is composed of 1,500 custom-made low-iron laminated tempered glass panels cut into 146 different shapes and sizes and manufactured by Saint-Gobain in Steyr, Austria.
3. Hot Bending Glass
The basic principles of thermal bending surface glass processing are as follows:Evenly heat the cut flat glass to a temperature around 550ºC (bending annealing) -650ºC (bending tempering), at which temperature the glass becomes viscoplastic and loses its brittleness and rigidity.
The softened glass plate is placed on a mold with a specific bending form, and the annealed curved glass is obtained by natural cooling after gravity deformation, or formed by mechanical pressure (nipping roller), and then quickly cooled to form tempered curved glass, and the optical quality of the annealed glass is even better.
Well, the optical quality of tempered curved glass formed by mechanical pressure is very sensitive to mold.pictureTheoretically, the hot bending process can obtain various curved surface forms through specific molds, such as the common single-curved arc shape (single bend), S-curve shape (bend), spherical shape (composite bend), and single-curve glass. Hot bending is relatively easy.
Aquarium glass and counter glass are commonly used for bending hot-bending glass. The main technical difficulty of bending glass is that the straight line is bent, and mold marks are prone to defects such as mold marks at the corners.
Composite curved glass, such as spherical glass, curved arch profile, etc., requires a high level of technology in the bending operation, and accurate molds must be made, which can only be completed by professional bending furnaces.
In addition, various complex irregular free-form surface coatings and colored glaze printed flat glass can also be realized. Generally, heat-curved surface glass can also be combined into laminated glass and insulating glass.pictureHow to judge the quality of hot bending glass:
The main reason is that the construction cost and transportation costs are expensiveIn early applications, a single bend would be more common. In recent years, there have also been cases of customization of curved surfaces.
Nordstrom's flagship store in New York City
Super large hyperbolic hot bending glass
4. Colored Glazed Glass
Colored glazed glass is to print inorganic glaze (also known as ink) on the glass surface, and then dry and temper or thermalize the glaze to permanently sinter the glaze on the glass surface to obtain a wear-resistant, acid- and alkali-resistant decorative glass product...
Architectural glazed glass generally uses regular geometric patterns such as dots and lines. Well-designed patterns can make buildings and spaces show a simple and elegant style. In some cases, double-layer geometric patterns are superimposed to create rich visual illusions.
Permanent sintering of colored glaze glass on the glass surface has the advantages of acid and alkali resistance, corrosion resistance, never fading, safety, and high strength, and has the characteristics of reflection and non-see-through, low cost, and convenient installation.
Shenyang Jindi Sunac · Capital Science and Technology City
To reduce the oppressive feeling brought by the volume, New Zealand gray hemp stone, high-transparency white glass, and glazed glass are used as materials. The collision of large color blocks of gray and white is concise and tension-centered. It exudes elegant charm to the surroundings.
5. Tempered Glass
Tempered glass is another kind of safety glass except for laminated glass. The physical tempering of glass usually refers to heating ordinary annealed glass to a certain temperature (usually 650-700°C), and quenching when the glass is close to softening. Form a compressive stress layer to improve the mechanical strength and thermal shock resistance of the glass.
In addition, glass also has chemical tempering (also known as ion exchange tempering), which uses the migration and diffusion of ions on the glass surface, and through ion exchange, composition changes occur in the thinner glass surface layer area, thereby increasing the strength of the glass. compressive stress on the surface.
The strength of tempered glass is more than 4 times that of ordinary annealed glass, and its bending and impact strength are also significantly improved.However, due to the uniform compressive stress on the outer surface of tempered glass and the corresponding tensile stress inside, once tempered, no cutting, grinding, or other processing can be done, otherwise, it will break due to the destruction of the balance of uniform compressive stress.
Cloud Valley TOD, Hangzhou / Superimpose Architecture
6. Sequence of Glass Deep-processing
Because the various deep processing techniques of glass will cause changes in its physical and chemical properties, there is a certain sequence relationship among them. The table lists the various processing techniques, their sequence, and their feasibility.
|First/After||Cutting||Colored glaze||Tempering||Coating||Hot bending||Interlayer||Composite|
Glass is the main building material for energy saving, emission reduction, and consumption reduction. At present, new building materials, especially various glass deep-processing materials, have become the main body of the market. In the home environment, large-area doors, windows, or curtain walls replace traditional concrete walls to broaden the view of the house and enhance indoor and outdoor. The obvious willingness to interact further releases the market demand for architectural glass.
New products with adjustable light, variable color, strong decorative effects, high durability, and excellent energy-saving performance emerge endlessly. LIJIANG Glass suggests that architectural glass processing enterprises should start from the facts, see the market situation clearly, actively respond to market challenges, and use technology to innovate and develop products. LIJIANG Glass do believe that only by accelerating transformation and upgrading can we remain invincible in the fierce market competition.