Above the glass selection guide for windows and doors sunroom①, Jinan LIJIANG Glass continued to write an article on the cognition and purchase guide of home improvement doors, windows, and sunroom glass so that consumers can have a clearer idea when purchasing glass without stepping on the pit.
3. Influencing factors of glass performance - product types, materials, details
The glass performance that consumers care about basically lies in thermal insulation, sound insulation, light transmission, safety, etc. As mentioned in Chapter 2, Jinan LIJIANG Glass will be subdivided.
The factors affecting the performance of a piece of glass include glass type, material, and details from the product side.
Take the tempered insulating glass of reference 5 + 9A + 5 / tempered laminated glass of 5 + 0.76 PVB + 5 as an example (respectively, the commonly used doors and windows and the ordinary glass of the sunroom, which can meet the basic requirements of heat insulation, sound insulation, and safety sexual requirements):
3.1 Product side
Three glass and two cavities. For example, 5 + 9A + 5 + 9A + 5, the price of glass is increased by about two or three hundred per square meter, which can improve the thermal insulation and thermal insulation performance of glass by about 20% - 30%, and effectively improve the sound insulation performance, especially the isolation of relatively high-frequency noise pollution.
Laminated insulating glass, double-laminated insulating glass. For example, 5 + 9A + 5 + 0.76 PVB + 5, 5 + 0.76 PVB + 5 + 9A + 5 + 0.76 PVB + 5, the price of glass per square meter will increase by about 200 to 500. The most important improvement is the performance of glass sound insulation. The sound insulation effect is about 10 decibels (requires actual measurement, and needs to be matched with doors and windows). It is suitable for road sections such as streets, elevated, train, and plane passing.
|Types of glass specifications||STC||OITC||RW||RW（C;Ctr）|
|Single layer glass 1/2'' 12mm||36||33||37||37（-2；-3）dB|
|Insulating glass 1''-（1/4''-1/2''AS-1/4''）（Sealed）6+12A+6||35||28||35||35（-2；-5）dB|
|Laminated glass 1/2''-（1/4‘’-0.030‘’-1/4‘’） 6+0.76PVB+6||38||34||38||38（-1；-3）dB|
|Single laminated insulating glass 1/4''Lam-1/2‘’AS-1/4‘’ （Sealed）||39||31||39||39（-2；-5）dB|
|Double laminated insulating glass 1/4''Lam-1/2‘’AS（2）-1/4‘’ （Sealed） （6+0.76PVB+6）+12A+（6+0.76PVB+6）||42||33||42||42（-2；-6）dB|
Note: Lam is laminated glass, AS is air layer. 1 inch = 25.4mm
For the acoustic properties of several typical glasses, you can see the RW / STC values; source: American Riverbank Acoustics Laboratory
3.2 Material side
Ultra-clear glass refers to the original glass with a light transmittance of more than 92% (ordinary float glass has a light transmittance of about 85%). About ten to one hundred, any glass product can be added. It is often used in the homes of users who have higher requirements for landscape and improve multi-layer glass or Low-e glass with green light and low light transmittance.
Figure 1 Because the glass itself has ferrous ions, with the increase of the number of layers and thickness, the finished glass will have a green light phenomenon;
the original ultra-white glass has fewer impurities than the ordinary original, so this phenomenon can be reduced;
Low-E glass, such as 5 + 9A + 5 single silver Low-e, the price of glass per square meter is increased by about 50 to 100, 5 + 9A + 5 double silver Low-e, the price is doubled on the basis above, more More with the insulating glass. The main purpose is to further improve the thermal insulation and thermal insulation performance of insulating glass. The effect of single silver is similar to that of triple glass and two cavities. Taking the northern hemisphere as an example, it can be used in high latitude and low latitude regions, and the cost performance is very high. The more layers of Low-e, the better the thermal insulation and thermal insulation effect, but the increasing effect decreases gradually.
Figure 2 The Low-E glass principle: reflect thermal radiation energy 1
Warm edge spacers are insulating glass spacers with a lower thermal coefficient, such as TPS warm edge spacers (the thermal conductivity of aluminum spacers is about 160 W/mK, and the warm edge is about 0.1 - 0.6 W/mK), which can be reduced The whole window K value is around 0.2 - 0.4 (W/m²K). The price of glass per square meter is about 20 to 50 dollars, and it is added to insulating glass with higher thermal insulation requirements.
Figure 3 A kind of warm edge spacer - TPS flexible warm edge 1
Noble gases, which are noble gases with a lower guide thermal coefficient, such as argon (5 + 12 Ar + 5), krypton (the thermal conductivity of air is about 0.02 W/mK, and argon is about 0.01 W/mK), which can improve The thermal insulation performance of glass is about 10%. The price of glass per square meter is increased by 30 to 50, and it is added to insulating glass with higher thermal insulation requirements or larger areas.
Figure 4 The rare gas conduction principle detects whether there is a rare gas in the hollow layer 1
The laminated film, the mainstream laminated film is made of PVB material, and the price per square meter of glass varies according to the thickness of the film, which has high strength, damping, and sound insulation effect. The film also has low-end EVA material and higher-end SGP material. EVA material is not recommended to be used on home windows and door glass. SGP material has a stronger bearing capacity and is not easy to yellow, so it is often added to the ultra-clear glass. on laminated glass.
Figure 5 Laminated layer (sheet) of laminated glass 1
Various auxiliary materials are different, and the auxiliary materials of insulating glass and laminated glass, such as spacers, molecular sieves, the first sealant (butyl rubber), and the second seal (polysulfide glue) have different quality, for example, each Auxiliary materials represent the brand, Lisec spacer, 3 A molecular sieve, green energy butyl rubber, Vinci polysulfide rubber, Gino PVB film, etc.
Figure 6 The Lisec spacer
the pores on the spacer are regular and dense, which can make the molecular sieve absorb water more effectively;
The quality of the auxiliary materials also determines the quality of the finished glass to a certain extent, the most obvious being the performance in terms of effective service life. Hey, the national standard requires qualified insulating glass to have an effective service life of 15 years or more (no air leakage), and better quality insulating glass can guarantee an effective service life of 20 years or even 50 years.
Poor laminated glass will yellow in three to five years, affecting the appearance, while good quality raw materials have lower yellowing rates and can withstand long years of sun exposure.
Figure 7 The SGP laminated glass building 1
Taking the United States as an example, the laminated glass of buildings in Manhattan uses a higher-quality SGP interlayer to improve the life of the building;
Different glass thickness, such as 6 + 9A + 6, 6 + 9A + 8 tempered insulating glass / 6 + 0.76PVB + 6 tempered laminated glass. The thickness of the glass mainly matches the different glass areas. As the area of the hollow and laminated glass increases, the thickness of the glass that meets the specifications should be used to improve the "deflection" and "wind pressure resistance" of the glass and ensure the safety of use.
|Glass type||Nominal thickness（mm）||Maximum allowable area（㎡）|
|Laminated glass||6.38 6.76 7.52|
8.38 8.76 9.52
10.38 10.76 11.52
12.38 12.76 13.52
The relationship between the glass thickness and the maximum allowable area in the international standard;
Different glass thicknesses can also be used to improve the sound insulation of insulating glass. For example, 6 + 9A + 8 is more sound insulation than 6 + 9A + 6. One is because the total thickness of the glass is increased, and the other is because different glass thicknesses can block different frequencies of noise. , so that the overall sound insulation effect is better
Different light transmittances, the light transmittance of ordinary glass is about 85%, and the light transmittance of ultra-clear glass is 92% and above. The difference in light transmittance of similar original films is not obvious. Home improvement consumers only need to consider whether to add ultra-clear glass to improve the decoration effect on Low-e glass and multi-layer glass (such as double-laminated insulating glass).
The light transmittance of single silver Low-E glass is generally divided into three specifications: high transmittance (above 70%), medium transmittance (50% - 60%), and low transmittance (below 50%). The effect of lighting is smaller, but the thermal conductivity will be higher, and the thermal insulation performance is relatively poor.
Figure 8 The comparison of actual scenes of high and low transparency Low-E glass
Different installation positions of Low-E glass have different effects. In Chapter 2, Jinan LIJIANG Glass has data and pictures to prove the thermal insulation performance of glass (see the photothermal performance parameters of common insulating glass for details). In general, the Low-E glass surface in the northern hemisphere is best installed indoors, and the Low-E glass surface in the southern hemisphere is best installed outdoors to give it a greater advantage.
Different spacer widths, insulating glass spacer widths are different, and the thickness of the hollow layer is different, such as 5 + 12A + 5, 5 + 20A + 5 tempered insulating glass. The thickness of the hollow layer of insulating glass mainly matches the width of the glass cavity of different door and window structures. If a door and window manufacturer has more options for the size of pressing lines and rubber strips, the thickness of the hollow layer can be appropriately considered by consumers.
Because the thickness of the hollow layer of insulating glass is different, it slightly affects its thermal insulation and sound insulation performance. The overall thickness is 9 A - 15 A, and the air layer has the best performance.
Figure 9 The relationship between the thickness of the hollow layer of insulating glass and the thermal insulation effect
Bending / gusseted spacer refers to the treatment process of the corner of the insulating glass spacer. The bending spacer has only one "joint seam", which is relatively less likely to cause sealing failure in future use.
Figure 10 The difference between bending / gusseted spacers
For different types of rare gases, argon is often used as a rare gas filling for insulating glass in home decoration, because the effect is ideal and the price is cheap. It is also filled with krypton gas, xenon gas, and mixed gas. Although the thermal insulation effect will be better, the price is high and the cost performance is not high.
Table 1 The comparison of performance of different gases
|Gas type||Content in air / %||Density / kg*m-3||Thermal conductivity / |
|Heat transfer coefficient / |
6mm White Glass+12+6mm White Glass W*（m*K）-1
1. The content in the air refers to the volume percentage
2. Density and thermal conductivity refer to the conditions at a temperature of 0°C and an atmospheric pressure of 101.325 KPa
3. The heat transfer coefficient value is calculated by Window 5.2 software under the assumption that the 12 mm intermediate layer is filled with 100% gas content.
The influence of different rare/inert gases on the thermal insulation performance of glass;
Different rare gas concentrations also affect the final thermal insulation performance. As the gas concentration decreases, the impact performance gradually decreases (the effect is lost when the concentration is reduced to 50% - 60%). And because the rare gas has an escape process, the insulating glass filled with rare gas requires the initial filling amount to be more than 85%, and the stronger the sealing performance of the insulating glass, the better (and the spacer bar, the first layer, the second layer of sealant, work-related).
Different thickness of laminated film, such as 5 + 1.14 PVB + 5 laminated glass, 6 + 9A + 6 + 1.14 PVB + 6 laminated insulating glass. The thickness of the film mainly matches the area of different laminated glass, and the thickness of the film that meets the specification should be used to ensure the safety of use.
Different film thicknesses can also be used to improve the sound insulation of laminated glass. The film thickness increases, the damping effect is stronger, and the ability to isolate low-frequency noise is better. The home is closer to the public road and the side of the viaduct can be considered to appropriately increase the film thickness.
Tempered / semi-tempered / non-tempered, the original glass has these three different processing methods. Among them, tempered glass is the mainstream, with high strength (4-5 times that of ordinary glass), good safety, and high consumer awareness. With the improvement of building codes, non-tempered glass has gradually faded out of the architectural glass industry.
Semi-tempered glass is a "substitute" for tempered glass. It has the advantages of high strength (twice that of ordinary glass) and a lower self-explosion rate. Considering the factors of high replacement cost (hoisting, labor, etc.) has been used more and more.
Figure 11 Sun room laminated tempered glass
4. The importance of workmanship in glass deep processing factories
Jinan LIJIANG Glass introduced the function, application, and glass performance of different glass. It is not only to give the new practitioner a general understanding of glass but also to know that if you want to buy a piece of finished glass with good quality and performance, it depends on the product type and material used. and details.
I also want to introduce a concept that consumers must know - the workmanship of glass deep processing plants is very important.
Figure 12 Glass deep processing factory
The home improvement door and window glass that consumers come into contact with mostly flow through two types of factories - glass original manufacturers and glass deep processing manufacturers.
Many home improvement door and window merchants will deliberately exaggerate the importance of the original glass manufacturers when choosing glass and promoting products, to promote their products as good, or to cover up the truth that the glass products are flawed.
In fact, "float" is a process for making original glass pieces. It corresponds to ordinary flat glass. Don't be deceived by the name "float". Now, most of the home decoration glass is made of floating glass. French glass is the original piece.
Glass original manufacturers ( see the picture below) are mainly engaged in the production of glass originals. The quality of the original film affects the upper limit of the glass in our home. For example, the quality control of the brand original film manufacturer is stricter, the quality of the original film is higher, and the finished product is relatively better.
What affects the quality of glass finished products also depends on the workmanship of the glass deep processing factory, which is responsible for the processing of finished products and determines the lower limit of finished glass products. For example, whether to buy the original film of a well-known brand or the original film of a brand with poor quality control; whether to buy the first-class product or the first-class product or the second-class product in the original film for processing; use a sealant and a second seal How about the quality of plastic, aluminum spacer, molecular sieve, and other auxiliary materials; how about the processing machine and the processing standard.
Figure 13 The difference between glass original manufacturers and glass deep processing manufacturers
In relatively standard glass deep processing factories, glass deep processing factories with better workmanship and higher quality materials can provide consumers with better quality glass products and product types (Chapter 3).
Figure 14 Glass products are provided by a glass deep processing enterprise
There are also non-standard glass processing factories with extremely poor workmanship: they purchase the "semi-finished products" after cutting and tempering from larger glass deep processing factories, omitting necessary processes and auxiliary materials, and specializing in inferior glass. It is necessary to carefully screen the quality of glass when purchasing.
Figure 15 The inferior glass is prone to water mist and water accumulation
For example, no molecular sieve (which can absorb the water vapor of insulating glass), no or poor first and second sealants, laminated glass filled with fake "glue" (what other wet process), and pure manual and unprofessional sealing slice operation. Because of the huge volume of small workshop-style factories, consumers can easily buy their inferior products if they are not careful:
Figure 16 The inferior insulating glass
Therefore, consumers' purchase of glass is similar to choosing doors and windows. It not only depends on whether there are products that meet their needs, but also on the standardization and strength of their processing plants.
At this point, the glass function, performance, and influencing factors (products, materials, details, workmanship) of the "Glass Selection Guide" has been introduced. The following will focus on the deep processing of glass.
5. The local conditions of glass selection
Adapt to local conditions - region and climate
Taking Europe and the United States as an example, the entire European region has a vast territory. Jinan LIJIANG Glass divides five climatic regions according to different climatic environments and summarizes the different requirements for glass (doors and windows) in different climatic regions.
In severe cold and cold regions, such as the Nordic region, Sweden, Finland, and other countries, the requirements for glass should be "strong thermal insulation, poor thermal insulation, and high light transmission", that is, the best heat transfer coefficient K / U value of glass is low, and the solar heat gain coefficient g The value (SHGC) is high, and the visible light transmittance is high. Then according to the knowledge points learned above, it is possible to consider adding based on three glass and two cavities, for example, 6 + 12 Ar warm edge + 6 Low-E (3 #) + 12 Ar warm edge + 6 Low-e (5 #).
In areas with hot summer and cold winter, such as France, the Netherlands, and other countries near the English Channel in Europe, the requirements for glass should be "considering both heat preservation and heat insulation, and moderate light transmission", that is, the best heat transfer coefficient K / U value of glass is low, The solar heat gain coefficient g value is low, and the visible light transmittance depends on the home lighting. Then according to the knowledge points learned above, it can be considered to add based on insulating glass, for example 6 Low-E (2 #) + 12 Ar warm edge + 6.
In areas with hot summers and warm winters, such as Belgium and other inland European countries, the requirements for glass should be "low thermal insulation requirements, high thermal insulation requirements, moderately low light transmission", that is, the glass should meet the solar heat gain coefficient of low g value. Then according to the knowledge points learned above, you can consider using 6 Low-E (2 #) + 12 A +6.
In regions with mild seasons, such as southern Europe, Spain, Portugal, and other countries, the suitable climate makes it less demanding on glass performance, but at best the thermal insulation performance is slightly better, making the interior more livable.
Adapting measures to local conditions - application spaceIn the space of each house, there will be different glass requirements due to different scenes.
For example, sound insulation. If you are on the side of the street or beside the elevated, the glass configuration is best to be added to ordinary laminated insulating glass; if you are not facing the street, there is no noise source, or you are sensitive to noise and want to have a better living experience, then Appropriate additions can be made to scenes such as bedrooms, study rooms, and living rooms. Conventional configurations can be used in places with often open windows such as kitchens and bathrooms.
For example, for the overall aesthetics, the corner with the most excellent scenery outside the window should use high-transparency Low-E and ultra-clear glass to improve the light transmittance of the glass, and the rest of the place should use a conventional configuration.
Figure 17 Ultra-white original glass
Purchasing according to the different requirements for doors, windows, or glass at different locations in the home can often have the effect of "spending money on the edge".
6. About purchasing needs, budget, order, and principles
After knowing the advantages and disadvantages of glass types and functions, you can decide how to increase or decrease the glass according to your situation and budget:
6.1 Total configuration and total budget
There is not much noise trouble. Most southern households use insulating glass, and northern households use three-glass and two-chamber as standard; if there is noise trouble, laminated insulating glass is sufficient as standard. If the budget is sufficient, consider glass. Add on.
6.2 Differentiated realization requirements
Considering the budget and applying the knowledge of glass, we can choose different glass configurations "according to local conditions":Choose the basic glass configuration for insignificant kitchens, washing and drying balconies, and other scenes;
In the bedroom, study, living room, and other scenarios with strong demand for sound insulation and thermal insulation, in the basic configuration, according to the budget, add glass, laminated layer thickness, Low-E film, warm edge, rare gas, and other configurations;
In the bathroom, a frosted layer and built-in louvers are required based on the insulating glass; in the viewing area, the light transmittance of the Low-E film is increased, and an additional ultra-clear glass is added; there is much large glass at home, and the glass is required to be half Tempering or reducing the self-explosion rate with ultra-white glass...
6.3 The cost-effective purchase order
In the process of adding glass with a limited budget, it is necessary to purchase in order with the highest cost performance.
For example, cities in the middle temperate zone of the northern hemisphere, such as New York, Tokyo, Istanbul, etc., have improved glass insulation and thermal insulation. Jinan LIJIANG Glass believes that the most cost-effective addition order is: first add single silver Low-E Glass for doors and windows, followed by Double Silver Low-E Glass, Argon third, then Warm Edge Spacer, and finally Triple Silver.
Laminated glass on the sunroof is not used as a suspended ceiling. It can be added to the laminated insulating glass first, and then single silver, argon...
Another example is the improvement of glass sound insulation. Jinan LIJIANG Glass believes that the most cost-effective order is: adding laminated insulating glass, followed by the thickness of the laminated layer, glass thickness (unequal thickness, etc.), and then there is a need for double-layer laminated hollow glass.
6.4 Grasp the big and let the small purchase principle
When buying glass, remember to grasp the principle of big and small. For example, in terms of sound insulation, thicker laminated layers, glass, and glass with different thicknesses can indeed improve the sound insulation ability, but the improvement is limited (the effect of one or two decibels is often undetectable), and can only be used as a more perfect solution. , Choose a more soundproof glass type is king.
This is the end of the introduction to the glass selection guide for doors and windows and sunrooms. After reading this article, Jinan LIJIANG Glass hopes to help buyers and consumers of window glass to understand the role of home improvement glass, understand their needs, and then be able to choose their satisfactory doors and windows Glass.